Scientists take a step closer to brain regeneration

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Scientists take a step closer to brain regeneration

The biological constitution of mammals makes them naturally incapable of regenerating certain tissues that have suffered significant damage. In an effort to find a solution to this type of attack, researchers from the BGI (Beijing Genomics Institute) conducted experiments on an animal that has surprising capacities for regenerating all of its limbs, including its brain.


Brain reconstruction

The study was carried out on the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum, a popular pet, known in part for never growing beyond the juvenile stage. According to research, stem cells from the specimen are capable of reproduce identically over a period of 60 days.

The new discovery could help scientists develop more effective ways to fight against certain ailments hitherto incurable. The results of the various researches appear in the journal Science.

Axolotl stem cells have unique characteristics

Brain regeneration requires synchronization of complex responses and the process can take several days depending on the severity of the lesions. Scientists used technology Stereo-seq to reproduce, at single-cell resolution, the architecture of the axolotl brain during its evolution.

Axolotl samples at six developmental stages and seven regeneration periods with the corresponding spatio-temporal Stereo-seq data were also taken. Observations reveal that during the early growth stage, neural pivot cells are difficult to differentiate between subtypes, and those of specialized neural strains.

The researchers therefore believe that various subtypes may have different functions during regeneration.

The same process of forming neurons for regeneration and development

The researchers produced spatial transcriptomic data from forebrain sections, covering seven phases of wound regeneration. Their observations show what ua partial tissue bond is created at the level of the wound after 20 days. However, the new tissues have a very distinct structural assembly from that of uninjured cells. It was only after about sixty days that the latter returned to the condition of the uninjured tissue.

This phenomenon occurs because of the neural pivots involved in this transformation. These last are derived from activation and metamorphosis of neural stem subelements inactive near the wound.

It was also discovered that the creation of neurons during development and regeneration follows a very similar pattern. This suggests that the injury causes neural stem cells to mutate into a rejuvenated growth state to instruct regenerative movement.

SOURCE: SCITECHDAILY

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